Faculty Profile

Dr. Sophie Molholm, Ph.D.

Sophie Molholm, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Pediatrics (Developmental Medicine)

Professor, Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience

Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Muriel and Harold Block Faculty Scholar in Mental Illness, Department of Pediatrics

Areas of Research: attention multisensory integration sensory and perceptual processing executive function

Professional Interests

I am interested in how the brain works, and gives rise to our experience in the world.  This is of course an incredibly complex question, but one that I hope to make a contribution to by studying basic processes such as how the human brain processes and integrates sensory inputs to impact perception and behavior, mechanisms of attention, how speech processing is achieved, and higher-order cognition related to executive function. 

My work involves characterizing these processes in healthy adults, charting their developmental course over childhood, and translating these findings to understand the neurobiology of developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, with an emphasis on autism, schizophrenia, and rare disorders such as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Rett syndrome. Non-invasive high-density recordings of the electrical activity of the brain, intracranial recordings in patients, psychophysics, magnetic resonance imaging, sometimes in combination with neuropsychological assessments of cognition and clinical diagnoses, are my primary tools of investigation. Thus for example, using electrophysiological and behavioral measures we have shown that the brain integrates multisensory inputs at very early as well as at later stages of information processing, and that how and where this is achieved is dependent on the stimulus type and the task being performed.  What's more, we have shown that multisensory integration, which relies on intact connectivity across anatomically segregated brain areas, has an extended developmental trajectory, and that it is impaired in autism.

I am the Associate Director of the Rose F. Kennedy Intellectual and Developmental Research Center at Einstein.  I also direct the Human Clinical Phenotyping Core of the RFK IDDRC. The core includes a staff of clinical neuropsychologists, a database manager, and study coordinators, and serves to recruit and characterize participants for Einstein studies.  The core maintains a large database of potential research participants.  This is composed largely of children, including those with a diagnosis of dyslexia, autism, and RETT syndrome, as well as healthy controls. See the core webpage for more information: http://www.einstein.yu.edu/centers/iddrc/iddrc.aspx?id=30133&ekmensel=15074e5e_4332_4335_btnlinkHumanee.

I am fortunate to have received funding for my research from NIMH, NSF, Autism Speaks, the Wallace Research Foundation, and private donors. 


Selected Publications

  1. Gomes, H., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Kurtzberg, D., Cowan, N., & Vaughan, H. G., Jr.  (2000).  Mismatch negativity in children and adults, and effects of an attended task.  Psychophysiology, 37, 807-816.
  2. Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Murray, M.M., Javitt, D.C., Schroeder, C.E., & Foxe. J.J. (2002).  Multisensory auditory-visual interactions during early sensory processing in humans: a high-density electrical mapping study.  Cognitive Brain Research, 14, 115-129.
  3. Ritter, W., Sussman, E., & Molholm, S., & Foxe, J.J. (2002).  Memory reactivation or reinstatement and the mismatch negativity.  Psychophysiology, 39, 158-165.
  4. Tartter, V.C., Gomes, H., Dubrovsky, B., Molholm, S., & Vala Stewart, R. (2002).  Novel metaphors appear anomalous at least momentarily:  Evidence from N400.  Brain and Language, 80, 488-509.
  5. Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2004).  Visual-Auditory Multisensory Object Recognition in Humans:  A High-density Electrophysiological study.  Cerebral Cortex, 14, 452-465.
  6. Molholm, S.,Gomes, H., Lobosco, Deacon, D., & Ritter, W. (2004).  Feature versus gestalt representation of stimuli in the mismatch negativity system of 7-to-9 year old children.  Psychophysiology, 41, 385-393.
  7. Molholm, S., Martinez, A., Ritter, W., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2005). The neural circuitry of pre-attentive auditory change-detection: An fMRI study of pitch and duration mismatch negativity generators.  Cerebral Cortex, 15, 545-551. 
  8. Murray, M. M., Molholm, S., Michel, C.M., Heslenfeld, D.J., Ritter, W., Javitt, D.C., Schroeder, C.E., & Foxe, J.J. (2005).  Grabbing Your Ear: Rapid Auditory-Somatosensory Multisensory Interactions in Low-level Sensory Cortices are not Constrained by Stimulus Alignment.  Cerebral Cortex, 15, 963-974. 
  9. Hester, R., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S., Shpaner, M., & Garavan, H. (2005).  Neural mechanisms involved in error processing:  A comparison of errors made with and without awareness, NeuroImage, 27, 602-608.
  10. Martinez, A., Teder-Sälejärvi, W., Vazquez, M., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Javitt, D.C., Di Russo, F., Worden, M.S., & Hillyard, S.A. (2006). Objects are highlighted by spatial attention.  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 298-310.
  11. Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Javitt, J.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2005).  Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Human Object Recognition Processing: An integrated high-density electrical mapping and functional imaging study of "closure" processes.  NeuroImage, 29, 605-618.
  12. Senkowski, D., Molholm, S., Gomez-Ramirez, M., & Foxe, J.J. (2006). Oscillatory beta activity predicts response speed during a multisensory audiovisual reaction time task: A high-density electrical mapping study.  Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1556-1565.
  13. Magno, E, Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S, Robertson, I.H., & Garavan, H (2006).  The anterior cingulate and error avoidance.  Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4769-4773.
  14. Ritter, W., De Sanctis, P., Molholm, S., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2006) Preattentively grouped tones do not elicit MMN with respect to each other. Psychophysiology, 43, 423-430.
  15. Saint-Amour, D., De Sanctis, P., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., & Foxe, J.J. (2007). Seeing voices: High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis of the multisensory mismatch negativity evoked during the McGurk illusion. Neuropsychologia, 45, 587-597.
  16. Molholm, S., Sehatpour, P., Mehta, A.D., Shpaner, M., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Ortigue, S., Dyke, J.P., Schwartz, T.H., & Foxe, J.J. (2006).  Audio-visual multisensory integration in superior parietal lobule revealed by human intracranial recordings. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96, 721-729.
  17. Senkowski, D., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Lakatos, P., Wylie, G.R., Molholm, S., Schroeder, C.E., & Foxe, J.J. (2007). Multisensory processing and oscillatory activity: analyzing non-linear electrophysiological measures in humans and simians. Experimental Brain Research, 177, 184-195
  18. Leavitt, V.M., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Shpaner, M., Foxe, J.J. (2007).  Auditory processing in schizophrenia during the middle latency period (10-50 milliseconds): High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis reveal subcortical antecedents to early cortical deficits.  Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 32, 339-353.
  19. Molholm, S., Martinez, A., Shpaner, M., Foxe, J.J. (2007).  Object based attention is multisensory: Co-activation of an object’s representations in ignored sensory modalities.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 499-509.
  20. Ross, L.A., Saint-Amour, D., Leavitt, V.M., Molholm, S., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2007). Impaired Multisensory Processing in Schizophrenia: Deficits in Visual Enhancement of Speech Comprehension Under Noisy Environmental Conditions. Schizophrenia Research, 97, 173-183.
  21. Moran, R., Reilly, R.B., Molholm, S., & Foxe, J.J. (2008).  Changes in Effective Connectivity of Human Superior Parietal Lobule under Multisensory and Unisensory Stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 2303-2312.
  22. De Sanctis, F., Ritter, W., Molholm, S., Kelly, S.P., & Foxe, J.J. (2008).  Auditory Scene Analysis: The interaction of stimulation rate and frequency separation on preattentive grouping.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1271-1276.
  23. Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Schwartz, T.H., Mahoney, J.R., Mehta, A. D., Javitt, D.C., Stanton, P.K., & Foxe, J.J. (2008).  Long-range oscillatory coherence across a frontal-occipital-hippocampal brain network during visual object processing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 4399-4404.
  24. Barnett, K.J., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S., Kelly, S.P., Shalgi, S., Mitchell, K.J., & Newell, F.N. (2008). Differences in early sensory-perceptual processing in synesthesia: a visual evoked potentials study.  NeuroImage, 43, 605-13.
  25. Foxe, J.J., Strugstad, E.C., Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Pasieka, W., Schroeder, C.E., McCourt, M.E. (2008). Parvocellular and magnocellular contributions to the initial generators of the visual evoked potential: high-density electrical mapping of the "C1" component. Brain Topogr. 21:11-21.
  26. Fiebelkorn I.C., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., Mercier, M.M., Snyder, A.C., Molholm, S. (2011).
  27. Ritter, W., Sussman, E., & Molholm, S.  (2000).  Evidence that the mismatch negativity system works on the basis of objects.  NeuroReport, 11, 61-63.
  28. Molholm, S., Gomes, H., & Ritter, W. (2001).  The detection of constancy amidst change:  A dissociation between preattentive and intentional processing.  Psychophysiology, 38, 969-978.
  29. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe, J.J. & Molholm, S. (2009).  Dual Mechanisms for Object Based Cross-Sensory Transfer of Attention:How Much Do Learned Associations Matter?  Cerebral Cortex. 20: 109-20.
  30. De Sanctis, P., Ritter, W., Molholm, S., Shpaner, M., Javitt, D.C. and Foxe, J.J. (2009).  Right hemisphere advantage for auditory temporal discrimination: High-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN).  Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 3:5. Epub 2009 Apr 20.
  31. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe, J. J., Schwartz, T.H., & Molholm, S. (2010). Staying within the lines: the formation of visuospatial boundaries influences multisensory feature integration.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 1737-1743.
  32. Lucan, J., Foxe, J.J., Weisser, V.D., Sathian, K., & Molholm, S. (2010).  Tactile shape discrimination recruits human lateral occipital complex during early perceptual processing. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1813-21.
  33. Russo, N., Foxe, J.J., Brandwein, A., Altschuler, T., Gomes, H., & Molholm, S. (2010). Multisensory processing in children with autism: high-density electrical mapping of auditory-somatosensory integration.  Autism Research, 3, 253-67.
  34. Brandwein, A., Foxe, J.J., Altshuler, T., Gomes, H., & Molholm, S (2010). Tracking the developmental course of auditory-visual multisensory processing in children: A high-density electrophysiological study.  Cerebral Cortex, 21, 1042-55.
  35. Foxe, J.J., Yeap, Sherlyn, Thakore, J.H., Snyder, A., Kelly, S.P., & Molholm, S. (2010).  The N1 auditory evoked potential component as an endophenotype for schizophrenia: High-density electrical mapping in clinically unaffected first-degree relatives, first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients.  European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 261, 331-9.
  36. Butler, J.S., Molholm, S., Fiebelkjorn, I.C., Mercier, M.R., Schwartz, T.H., & Foxe, J.J. (2011).  Common or redundant neural circuits for duration processing across audition and touch. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 3400-6
  37. Banergee, S., Molholm, S, Snyder, A.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2011). Oscillatory alpha-band mechanisms and the deployment of spatial attention to anticipated auditory and visual target locations: Supramodal or sensory-specific control mechanisms? Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 9923-32.
  38. Ross, L., Molholm, S. Blanco, D., Gomez-Ramirez, M, Saint Amour, D., & Foxe, J.J.  (2011). The tuning of multisensory speech perception continues through the late childhood years.  European Journal of Neuroscience,  33, 2329-37.
  39. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., & Molholm, S. (2011). Auditory Facilitation of Visual-Target Detection Persists Regardless of Retinal Eccentricity and Despite Wide Audiovisual Misalignments. Experimental Brain Research, 213, 167-74.
  40. Ready, Set, Reset: Stimulus-Locked Periodicity in Behavioral Performance Demonstrates the Consequences of Cross-sensory Phase Reset.  Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 9971-81.
  41. Leavitt, V.M., Molholm, S., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Foxe, J.J. (2011). "What" and "where" in auditory sensory processing: a high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization. Front Integr Neurosci. 2011;5:23. Epub 2011 Jun 22.
  42. Gomez-Ramirez, M., Kelly, S.P., Molholm, S., Sehatpour, P., Schwartz, T.H., & Foxe, J.J. (2011).  Oscillatory Sensory Selection Mechanisms during Intersensory Attention to Rhythmic Auditory and Visual Inputs: A Human Electro-Corticographic Investigation.  Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 18556-67.
  43. Altschuler, T., Molholm, S, Russo, N., Snyder, A., Brandwein, A.; Blanco, D., & Foxe, J. (2011). Early Electrophysiological Indices Of Illusory Contour Processing Within The Lateral Occipital Complex Are Virtually Impervious To Large-Scale Manipulations Of Illusion Strength.  NeuroImage, 59. 4074-85.
  44. Berko, E.R., Beren, F., Suzuki,M., Alaimo, C., Calder, R.B., Ballaban-Gil, K., Gounder, B., Kampf, K., Kirschen,J., Lemetre, C., Maqbool, S., Momin, Z., Reynolds, D., Russo, N., Shulman, L., Stasiek, E., Tozour,J., Valicenti, R., Wang, S., Abrahams, B., Hargitai, J., Buxbaum, J., Inbar, D., Zhang, Z., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Marion, R.W., Auton, A., Greally, J.M. (2014). Epigenetic dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder associated with advanced maternal age. PLoS Genetics, 10: e1004402.
  45. Ross, L.A., Del Bene, V.A., Molholm, S., Woo, Y.J., Andrade, G.N., Abrahams, B.S., Foxe, J.J. (2017). Common variation in the Autism risk gene CNTNAP2, brain structural connectivity and multisensory speech integration. Brain and Language, July 21, E-pub ahead of print.
  46. Freedman, E.G., Molholm, S., Gray, M.J., Belyusar, D., Foxe, J.J.  (in press).  Saccade adaptation deficits in developmental dyslexia suggest disruption of cerebellar-dependent learning. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, July 21, E-pub ahead of print.
  47. Cuppini, C., Ursino, M.,  Magosso, E., Ross, L.A., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S. (in press). A computational analysis of neural mechanisms responsible for the maturation of multisensory speech integration in neurotypical children and those on the Autism Spectrum. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
  48. Gomes, H., Duff, M., Ramos, M., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Halperin, J. (2012). Auditory Selective Attention and Processing in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology, 123, 293-302.
  49. Snyder, A., Shpaner, M., Molholm, S. & Foxe, J.J. (2012).  Visual object processing as a function of stimulus energy, retinal eccentricity and Gestalt configuration: a high-density electrical mapping study.  Neuroscience, 221, 1-11.
  50. Butler, J., Foxe, J.J., Fiebelkorn, I.E., Mercier, M., Molholm, S. (2012). Multisensory representation of frequency across audition and touch: High density electrical mapping reveals early sensory-perceptual coupling. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 15338-44.
  51. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe., J.J., McCourt, M.E., Dumas, K.N., & Molholm, S. (2013). Atypical Category Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in High-Functioning Children with Autism: Revealed through High-Density EEG Mapping, Cortex, 49, 1259-67.
  52. Brandwein, A., Foxe, J., Butler, J.,  Russo, N., Altshuler, T., Gomes, H., Molholm, S. (2013). The Development of multisensory integration in high-functioning autism: High-density electrical mapping and psychophysical measures reveal impairments in the processing of audiovisual inputs.  Cerebral Cortex, 23, 1329-41.
  53. Fiebelkorn, I.E., Snyder, A., Mercier, M., Butler, J., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J. (2013).  Cortical cross-freqeuncy coupling predicts perceptual outcomes.  NeuroImage, 69, 126-137.
  54. Shpaner, M., Molholm, S., Forde, E-J., & Foxe, J.J.(2013). Disambiguating the roles of area V1 and the lateral occipital complex (LOC) in contour integration.  NeuroImage, 69, 146-156.
  55. Mercier, M.M., Foxe, J.J., Fiebelkorn, I.C., Butler, J.S., Schwartz, T.H., Molholm, S. (2013). Auditory-driven phase reset in visual cortex: Human electrocorticography reveals mechanisms of early multisensory integration.  NeuroImage, 79, 19-29.
  56. Frey, H-P, Molholm, S., Lalor, E., Russo, N., Foxe, J.J. (2013).  Atypical cortical representation of peripheral visual space in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).  European Journal of Neuroscience, 38, 2125-38.
  57. Megevand, P., Molholm, S., Nayak, A., & Foxe, J.J.  (2013). Recalibration of the Multisensory Temporal Window of Integration results from changing task demands.  PLOSONE, 8, 8, e71608.
  58. Molholm, S., Mercier, M., Liebenthal, E., Schwartz, T., Ritter, W., Foxe,J.J., De Sanctis, P. (2014).  Mapping Phonemic Processing Zones along Human Perisylvian Cortex: An Electro-Corticographic Investigation. Brain Structure and Function, 219,1369-83.
  59. Frey, H-P, Schmidt, A.M., Murphy, J.W., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J. (2014). Modulation of early cortical processing during divided attention to non-contiguous locations. European Journal of Neuroscience, 39, 1499-507.
  60. Murphy, J.B., Foxe, J. J., Peters, J.B., Molholm, S. (2014). Susceptibility to distraction in autism spectrum disorder:  Probing the integrity of oscillatory alpha-band suppression mechanisms.  Autism Research, 7, 442-58. 
  61. Andrade, G.N., Molholm, S., Butler, J.S., Brandwein, A.B., Walkley, S.U., Foxe, J.J. (2014).  Atypical multisensory integration in Niemann-Pick type C disease - towards potential biomarkers. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, Sept. 20, 9, 149.
  62. Foxe. J.J., Molholm, S., Del Bene, V.A., Frey, H.P., Russo, N.R., & .Ross, L. (2015). Severe Multisensory Speech Integration Deficits in High- Functioning School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their Resolution during Early Adolescence.  Cerebral Cortex, 25, 298-312.
  63. Brandwein, A.B., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., Frey, H.P., Bates, J.C., Shulman, L.H., Molholm, S. (2015). Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 230-44.
  64. Andrade, G.N., Butler, J.S., Mercier, M.R., Molholm, S., Foxe. J,J (2015). Spatio-temporal dynamics of adaptation in the human visual system: a high-density electrical mapping study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 41, 925-39.
  65. Mercier, M.R., Molholm, S., Fiebelkorn, I.C., Butler, J.S., Schwartz, T.,H., Foxe. J.J. (2015).  Neuro-oscillatory phase alignment drives speeded multisensory response times: an electro-corticographic (ECoG) investigation.  Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 8546-57.
  66. Ross, L.A., Del Bene, V.A., Molholm, S., Frey, HP, & Foxe, J.J. (2015).  Sex Differences in Multisensory speech processing in both typically developing children an those on the autism spectrum.  Frontiers in Neuroscience: Child and Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry, 9: 185.
  67. Murphy, J.B., Foxe, J. J., Molholm, S. (2015).  Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults.  Developmental Science, July 17, E-pub ahead of print.
  68. Mahoney, J.R., Molholm, S., Butler, J.S., Sehatpour, P., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Ritter, W., Foxe, J.J. (2015).Keeping in touch with the visual system: spatial alignment and multisensory integration of visual-somatosensory inputs. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 1068.
  69. Uppal, N., Foxe. J.J., Butler, J.S., Acluche, F., Molholm, S. (2016).The neural dynamics of somatosensory processing and adaptation across childhood: a high-density electrical mapping study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 115,1605-19.
  70. Woo, Y.J., Wang, T., Guadalupe, T., Nebel, R.A., Vino, A., Del Bene, V.A., Molholm, S., Ross, L.A., Zwiers, M.P., Fisher, S.E., Foxe, J.J., Abrahams, B.S. (2016). A Common CYFIP1 Variant at the 15q11.2 Disease Locus Is Associated with Structural Variation at the Language-Related Left Supramarginal Gyrus. PLoS One, 11:e0158036.
  71. Andrade, G.N., Butler, J.S., Peters, G.A., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J. (2016). Atypical visual and somatosensory adaptation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Transl Psychiatry, 6:e804.
  72. Foxe, J.J., Kelly M. Burke, K.M., Andrade, G.N., Djukic, A, Frey, H-P, Molholm, S. (2016). Automatic cortical representation of auditory pitch changes in Rett Syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 8:34.
  73. Butler, J.S., Molholm, S., Andrade, G.N., Foxe, J.J. (2017).  An Examination of the Neural Unreliability Thesis of Autism.  Cerebral Cortex, 27, 185-200.
  74. Malcolm, B.R., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., Mowrey, W.B., Molholm, S., De Sanctis, P (2017). Long-term test-retest reliability of event-related potential (ERP) recordings during treadmill walking using the mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) approach.  Brain Research, May 19, E-pub ahead of print.
  75. Ross, L.A., Del Bene, V.A., Molholm, S., Woo, Y.J., Andrade, G.N., Abrahams, B.S., Foxe, J.J. (2017). Common variation in the Autism risk gene CNTNAP2, brain structural connectivity and multisensory speech integration. Brain and Language, 174, 50-60.
  76. Freedman, E.G., Molholm, S., Gray, M.J., Belyusar, D., Foxe, J.J.  (2017).  Saccade adaptation deficits in developmental dyslexia suggest disruption of cerebellar-dependent learning. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9:36.
  77. Cuppini, C., Ursino, M.,  Magosso, E., Ross, L.A., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S. (2017). A computational analysis of neural mechanisms responsible for the maturation of multisensory speech integration in neurotypical children and those on the Autism Spectrum. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience,11:518.
  78. Malcolm B.R., Foxe J.J., Butler J.S., Molholm S., De Sanctis P. (2018).  Cognitive load reduces the effects of optic flow on gait and electrocortical dynamics during treadmill walking. J Neurophysiol., Aug 1, E-pub ahead of print.

Review Articles, commentaries, and chapters:

  1. Gomes, H., Molholm, S., Christodoulou, C., Ritter, W., & Cowan, N. (2000).  The development of auditory attention in children.  Frontiers in Bioscience, 5, d108-120.
  2. Molholm, S. & Foxe, J.J. (2005).  Look 'hear', primary auditory cortex is active during lip-reading.  NeuroReport, 16, 123-124.
  3. Schroeder, C.E.,  Molholm, S., Lakatos, P., Ritter, W., and Foxe, J.J. (2004). Human-Simian correspondence in the early cortical processing of multisensory cues. Cognitive Processing, 5, 140-151.
  4. Foxe, J.J. & Molholm, S. (2009). Ten Years at the Multisensory Forum: Musings on the Evolution of a Field.  Brain Topography.  21: 149-54.
  5. Molholm, S. & Foxe, J.J. (2010).  Making sense of multisensory integration.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 1709-12.
  6. Fiebelkorn, I. Foxe, J.J., & Molholm, S. (2012).  Attention and Multisensory Feature Integration. In Barry Stein (Ed.).  Handbook of Multisensory Processing (pp. 383-396). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  7. Foxe, J.J., Ross, L., & Molholm, S. (2012).  Multisensory Integration Deficits in Schizophrenia.  In Barry Stein (Ed.).  Handbook of Multisensory Processing (pp. 691-706). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  8. Hahn, N., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S. (2014). Impairments of multisensory integration and cross-sensory learning as pathways to dyslexia. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 47:384-92.
  9. Beker, S., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S. (2018). Ripe for solution: Delayed development of multisensory processing in autism and its remediation. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 84:182-192.
  10. Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S., Baudouin, S.J., Wallace, M.T. (2018).  Explorations and perspectives on the neurobiological bases of autism spectrum disorder.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 47, 488-496.
  11. Rimmele, J.M., Gross, J., Molholm, S., Keitel, A.  Editorial: Brain Oscillations in Human Communication. Front Hum Neurosci., Feb 7;12:39.

More Information About Dr. Sophie Molholm

Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory- Einstein

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Research Information

In the News

A Lab Tests Playing to Help Children With Autism

Sophie Molholm, Ph.D., is conducting research to compare two commonly used therapies for children with autism to determine how they affect their brains and outcomes. Dr. Molholm is professor of neuroscience and of pediatrics at Einstein and director of the Sheryl and Daniel R. Tishman Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory at Einstein and Montefiore.

Fox News Health interviews Dr. Sophie Molholm regarding her research on sensory processing disorder.

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