Ph.D. and M.D.- Ph.D. in Clinical Investigation


Clinical Research, has been defined by NIH and includes:

  1. Patient-oriented research* includes: mechanisms of human disease, therapeutic interventions, clinical trials, and development of new technologies.
  2. Epidemiologic and behavioral studies, and
  3. Outcomes research and health services research


*According to NIH, patient-oriented research is research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin such as tissues, specimens and cognitive phenomena) for which an investigator (or colleague) directly interacts with human subjects. Excluded from this definition are in vitro studies that utilize human tissues that cannot be linked to a living individual. 

Translational research+ fosters the multidirectional integration of basic research, patient-oriented research, and population-based research, with the long-term aim of improving the health of the public.

  1. T1 research expedites the movement between basic research and patient-oriented research that leads to new or improved scientific understanding or standards of care.
  2. T2 research facilitates the movement between patient-oriented research and population-based research that leads to better patient outcomes, the implementation of best practices, and improved health status in communities.
  3. T3 research promotes interaction between laboratory-based research and population-based research to stimulate a robust scientific understanding of human health and disease.

 + Rubio DM, Schoenbaum EE, Lee LS et al. An Educational Framework for Translational Research. Acad Med. In press.

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