Diabetes Research Center

Animal Physiology Core

Director: Gary Schwartz, PhD

Operations Director: Licheng Wu, MD

Location: Golding 501

Request Services: licheng.wu@einstein.yu.edu 

The Einstein Animal Physiology Core assists biomedical investigators in the in vivo assessment of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis in mice and rats. The Animal Physiology Core offers a wide range of specialized, high quality methodologies and tools relevant to understanding the behavior and physiology mediating the relationships among diabetes, nutrient sensing, obesity and diabetic cardiovascular complications in rodents.


  1. Advise investigators in designing metabolic studies relevant to the control of glucose homeostasis and insulin action in rodents.
  2. Make available to investigators specialized measurements of the following:
    • Whole body and tissue-specific glucose sensitivity and insulin action in rodent models including, but not limited to insulin, pancreatic and hyperglycemic clamp studies.
    • Rodent adipose tissue distribution using microCT and measurements of glycogen in liver and muscle, intrahepatic lipids and intramyocellular lipids using NMR.
  3. Provide specialized surgical models for the study of insulin sensitivity, energy balance, and glucose and fatty acid metabolism.
  4. Offer instruction to students, postdoctoral fellows, investigators and technical staff in performing surgical and physiological techniques necessary to evaluate the control of glucose homeostasis and insulin action.
  5. Analyze whole body carbohydrate/fatty acid oxidation, energy expenditure, feeding behavior, and locomotor activity using specialized metabolic (indirect calorimetry) and behavioral rodent cages.
  6. Assess the effects of spontaneous (running wheel) or scheduled (treadmill) exercise on glucose homeostasis and metabolism.
  7. Perform quantitative analyses of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury and autonomic neuropathy.


  1. In vivo assessment of insulin sensitivity and action, energy balance, and exercise. These assessments are augmented by the new surgical procedures permitting selective targeting of brain and peripheral nervous system and intestinal sites.
  2. Measurement of body fat composition/distribution, CNS energy and glucose utilization using a variety of non-invasive imaging modalities.
  3. Assessment of cardiac physiology in various experimental and therapeutic intervention models of diabetes and obesity.

Fee Schedule

All fees are per rodent.

Type of service 

DRC member rate 

Non-Member rate 




Calorimetry analysis



Clamp surgery



Food reward/ day



Clamp assay:



With radioisotope

$120 ($320 w/ C14)

$200 ($400 w/ C14)

Without radioisotope



Clamp data analysis



Oral Glucose Tolerance Test $25 $50
Interperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test $25 $50
Intraperitoneal Insulin Tolerance Test $25 $50

Body Composition



Micro CT scan



Brain cannulation



Gastric bypass



Gut neural denervation

(include afferent/efferent, branch vagotomies, splanchnicectomy)

$75-$150, depending on number/ extent of denervation)

$150 - $300

Exercise session (includes analysis for wheel running)



Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion



Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion



Echocardiographic assessment



Hemodynamic assessment



Implantation of blood pressure transmitters



Core Invoice

Animal Physiology Order Form 


Use of this Core is available to investigators engaged in diabetes-related research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and its affiliated Institutions, and to investigators at other institutions. The Core generally supports projects funded by peer-reviewed grants, generally from the NIH, ADA, or JDRF.

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